400. Very Nice Large Pre-Columbian Mapuche Pottery Earthen Ware Storage Vessel from Ecuador. Approximately 15" x 10". There are two holes in the side of the vessel, and a couple of chips out of the lip. Other than this, the piece is in good condition for its age. All items are unconditionally guaranteed to be Authentic as described. For added security we offer a full money-back guarantee if a recognized authority disputes the authenticity of any object sold.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers. Their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chilo̩ Archipelago and spread later eastward to the Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up 80% of the indigenous peoples in Chile, and about 9% of the total Chilean population  they are particularly concentrated in AraucanÌ_a. Many have migrated to the Santiago area for economic opportunities.
The term Mapuche is used both to refer collectively to the Picunche (people of the north), Huilliche (people of the South) and Moluche or Nguluche from AraucanÌ_a, or at other times, exclusively to the Moluche or Nguluche from AraucanÌ_a. The Mapuche traditional economy is based on agriculture; their traditional social organisation consists of extended families, under the direction of a lonko or chief. In times of war, they would unite in larger groupings and elect a toki (meaning "axe, axe-bearer") to lead them. They are known for the textiles woven by women, which have been goods for trade for centuries, since before European encounter.
The Araucanian Mapuche inhabited at the time of Spanish arrival the valleys between the Itata and Tolt̩n rivers. South of it, the Huilliche and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chilo̩ Archipelago. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mapuche groups migrated eastward into the Andes and pampas, fusing and establishing relationships with the Poya and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups. The Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture, in what came to be called Araucanization.
Historically the Spanish colonizers of South America referred to the Mapuche people as Araucanians (araucanos). However, this term is now mostly considered pejorative  by some people. The name was likely derived from the placename rag ko (Spanish Arauco), meaning "clayey water". The Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy", is probably not the root of araucano..
Some Mapuche mingled with Spanish during colonial times, and their descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile. But, Mapuche society in AraucanÌ_a and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of AraucanÌ_a and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late 19th century. Since then Mapuches have become subjects, and then nationals and citizens of the respective states. Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.
1. "2012 census". Censo.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
2. ECPI, 2004-2005.
3.''AZ Domingo 17 de Febrero de 2008''" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-09-25.
4. Mapuche o Araucano (Spanish)
5. Antecedentes histÌ_ricos del pueblo araucano (Spanish)